Transducer play a vital role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process needs to be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another.
It really is a device which converts one form of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electricity is transformed into an electrical energy.
Kinds of transducer:
There are two types of transducers, they may be: Active transducers and Passive transducers
Active transducers: Torque Transducer is really a device which converts the given non-electrical energy into electrical power by itself. Thermocouple, Photovoltaic cell and a lot more are the most effective types of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is a device which converts the given non-electrical energy into electrical energy by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer are definitely the examples for the Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect is found in some materials (such as quartz) that have an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is applied towards the structure, it produces an electric charge and, when an electric powered field is applied, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” is derived from the Greek word for pressure.
A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or the other way round. Basically any kind of piezo mechanism may be called a transducer. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to operate voltage changes and therefore can be used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are employed in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The main benefit of a piezo speaker over a magnetically driven speaker lies in the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness from the piezo ceramic plates that are utilized to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging will also be according to piezoelectrics. In this case, the Miniature Load Cell are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly increases the amplitude while lowering the input power simultaneously, i.e. the system is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer:
In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are generally known as piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is usually utilized to generate forces or position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are often operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors:
Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors which can be very commonly used for pressure sensing applications. These are sometimes used together with piezo actuators to provide position feedback or force feedback, as an example on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive implies that the resistance changes with the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors tend not to produce a charge (energy) plus they cannot convert mechanical in electricity and the other way around. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a good selection for entry-level systems. Other sensors can be found when leading edge performance is required.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators:
If operated underneath the right conditions, the latest generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators can work for 10’s of vast amounts of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping:
Because of their fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a wonderful option for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor is required to give you the controller the correct information about how to counteract the mechanical vibration through providing the correct amplitude and phase output for the piezo actuator. The sensor can even be considered a piezo ceramic transducer, configured to respond to strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping:
Any type of rapid actuation may cause vibrations in a work piece. In accordance with Newton’s laws, this means, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the greater reactive forces it can cause. Just in case these forces are unwanted, a second piezo mechanical system using a counter mass may be integrated and driven using a signal from the opposite phase. With some fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel the other person out and also the work piece may now move quickly but without exerting any force on oygoqj surrounding structures. This trick is often utilized in fast piezo steering mirrors for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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